The word Qosqo is apparently an archaism that
according to chroniclers meant " navel" or " center" of the world;
in this case it would be the center or navel of the Tawantinsuyo.
From the southeastern angle of the city's Main Square started four
main roads towards the four "suyo" or nations and which names are
still used in different sectors of the Andes. Towards the city's
northwest was the " Chinchaysuyo" going as far as the Ancashmayo
River in Pasto, present-day Colombia at 4° of north latitude.
Towards the southwest was the " Contisuyo" occupying part of the
Peruvian coast and going as far as the Maule River in present-day
southern Chile at 36° of south latitude.
Towards the southeast was the "Collasuyo"
occupying all what today is Bolivia and going as far as Tucuman in
present-day Argentina. Towards the northeast in the subtropical
valleys and even occupying the beginning of the Amazonian lower
jungle was the " Antisuyo". In fact, what is known as Inkas'
Territory spread out over an area more than 3'000,000 Km² (1'158,306
mile²); that is, more than double present-day Peruvian territory;
and covered about 5,000 Km. (3,107 miles) of coast over the Pacific
The Tawantinsuyo's success was due to some
factors that are missed in present-time Peru which were based in
order: a social, economic and legal order according to realities of
the moment. The Quechuas were highly organized people and every
aspect of their daily life was framed in obedient respect and
pursuit of permanent and irremovable laws. Tradition has stated
three basic laws attributed to the Tawantinsuyo that would
synthesize their order: Ama Sua, Ama Llulla, Ama Kella (do not be
thief, liar, neither lazy). Though in modern history it is argued
that those are precepts created in colonial times in order to get
complete subjection of the native breed. It is obvious that by that
pre-Hispanic time the legal system tended to state some homogeneity
among the different nations in order to get the high living standard
that Quechuas reached for that age. The "Runa Simi" was established
as official language in the "Tawantinsuyo" territory. They
established a land division system with parts belonging to the Sun,
to the Inka, and to the State. Like that they guaranteed their
flourishing social security system in order to aid old people,
orphans, widows or unfortunate people.
Logically the biggest portion of lands were
devoted to be shared among common people. Thus, every newborn boy
had right to one "topo" of fertile farming land and every girl to a
half "topo" (topo or tupu: changing measure based on the human step
equivalent to about 2700 m²; 0.27 Ha.; 0.67 acres). All lands were
the state's property and they could not be inherited or sold; thus
when a person died his or her farmland was taken by another newborn.
Moreover, they established a planned sedentarism for all the
population, trying to get a land-man balance with the "mitimaes"
that were people or tribes displaced from their hometowns.
It is really difficult to catalogue the Inkan
Society in the right way. That is determined by the heterogeneous
historical interpretation systems; that is, the different positions,
philosophies, interests, nationalities and even races of the many
scholars occupied on it. In general terms, those who study only or
principally the Inkan nobility suggest that this was an enslaving or
early feudal society. Those who study principally the "runa" or
common people suggest that it was socialist or social-imperialist.
In synthesis, the society that was developed, lived and practiced by
the Quechuas was peculiar and unique, it has no equivalent in
traditional European societies. Thus its production mode is also
sui-generis and must be considered as it is; out of the considered
by many scholars "infallible" schemes. It is outrageous to argue
that the Tawantinsuyo was a society of the "bronze age" only taking
in mind that bronze was the hardest metal they got, without
considering their development in planning, social organization,
agriculture, architecture, engineering, etc., that was ahead of many
Old World contemporary societies.
The Tawantinsuyo was characterized by its
absolute and monarchical government that developed paternal patterns
for their people. People among who there was neither private
property nor starvation. Protected people who lacked little, in
counterpart, were devoted to work and obedient to the law; making
altogether a society that was not perfect but very well balanced.
Consequently, modern scholars such as Jose Tamayo classify the
Tawantinsuyo framed inside the "Theory of reciprocity and
redistribution, and the vertical control of ecological stages in the
Highlands and Coast of southern Peru".